About The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)-(isis)
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL /ˈaɪsəl/) is an Islamist rebel group that controls territory in Iraq and Syria and also operates in eastern Libya, and other areas of the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.The group's Arabic name is transliterated as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmīyah fī al-‘Irāq wash-Shām leading to the Arabic acronym Da‘ish or DAESH (Arabic pronunciation: da:ʕeʃ).The name is also commonly translated as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/). On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a Worldwide Caliphate and renamed itself the Islamic State (IS), but the new name has been widely criticised and condemned, with the UN, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to acknowledge it.Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group to be unrepresentative of Islam. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was named its "Caliph". As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organizations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's (caliphates's) authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".

The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, India, and Russia. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which was renamed Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. As Jama'at and later AQI, the group participated since August 2003 in the Iraqi insurgency which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006 proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). ISI gained a significant presence in Al Anbar Governorate, Diyala Governorate and Baghdad Governorate.

Under the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War had begun in March 2011. This offshoot named itself Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra front and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor and Aleppo.[41] Having thus expanded into Syria, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with his Syrian-based offshoot-group al-Nusra Front in April 2013, and changed the name of the reunited group to Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both al-Julani, the leader of al-Nusra, and al-Zawahiri, the leader of al-Qaeda, rejected the merger. The group remained closely linked to al-Qaeda until February 2014, when after an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL—citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".

ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists, and aid workers. (See ISIL beheading incidents.)

The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq while in Syria it conquered and conducted ground attacks against both the government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior U.S. military commanders and members of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a reemergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. This territorial loss implied a failure of U.S. foreign policy, and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government that required renewal of U.S. military action in Iraq.

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