History of ancient Egypt : Abu Simbel in southern nation of the Nubians
Abu Simbel was built by Ramses II, the most prolific pharaoh in terms of building works, and no mean military commander either. It marked the border between Egypt itself and the southern nation of the Nubians. There are two temples, both originally built into a rock face. The Great Temple is dedicated to Ra, the sun god, and also really to Ramses himself. The smaller temple is dedicated to the cow goddess Hathor and also to Ramses II's favorite wife, Nefertari.


Abu Simbel is located in Egypt in Lower Nubia, near the Sudanese border, 280 km south-west of Aswan. It is a mountainous cliff of reddish sandstone that rises up on the west bank of the Nile (now on the western shore of Lake Nasser behind the High Dam), where Rameses II, the third Pharaohs of the nineteenth Egyptian family, was built, two temples engraved in the heart of the rock, The Egyptian sovereignty over it and the consolidation of the Maronites and the victory of the Hittites in Kadesh, these two temples were completed around 1206 BC. They were one of the greatest temples of ancient Egypt. They are usually called "Abu Simbel al-Kabeer" and "Abu Simbel al-Saghir", both larger and more magnificent than all the Egyptian rock temples of all times. "They are terrified of their architecture, their great proportions, their statues and the beauty of their walls."

    These two temples had been improved and studied since the beginning of the nineteenth century. The result of the study shows that the great temple was dedicated to Rameses II, united with the Lord Amun Ra, and the patronage of my sister (the sun). The younger is dedicated to Nefertari, the wife of Rameses II, united with the goddess Hathor.

 
Abu Simbel, the Great Temple
Abu Simbel, the Great Temple
The Great Temple


    The height of the facade is 33 m and width 38 m, and enter the temple in the rock 63 m. Four giant statues of Ramses were carved into the façade, representing the lords. The upper part of one of them is broken. In spite of the enormity of these statues, the example was sculpted in the features of the handsome face, and the kind smile that receives the sun. Above the statues, the inscription of the names of Rameses II and his titles, "The Proverb and the Son of the Sun". Above it comes a frieze of sacred snakes, followed by a carved frieze representing monkeys in a single pattern, raising their arms lazily for the bright sun. Above the gate, in the center of the façade, is a statue of the Lord Raa Hor. Beside the legs of giant statues, including the statues of the king's family (his mother and beloved wife Nefertari and his children). It is clear that the representation of the family members was influenced by Akhenaten's ideas, which were spread about a century earlier. Sculptures represent prisoners.

  One reaches the base of the gate to a baptismal base with eight statues, carrying 10 m high, representing Rameses in the form of Lord Osiris, the Lord of the Underworld and the Sun, and decorated the ceiling with falcons, wings and stars. On the walls of the base of the columns were sculptures depicting the stages of the Battle of Kadesh. The baptismal hall is followed by a smaller hall with four square columns carved with scenes representing Rameses II with the gods. At the base of this base are several rooms for the preservation of offerings. Then there was a chamber of holy places, and four statues in the chest: the Lord of Manfis, Amon Re, the Lord of Taibah, and Ramesses, and of the Lord Raa Hur my sister, Lord of the city of On. The first ray of sunshine enters the sanctuary, lighting the statues and removing the pharaoh from darkness, twice every year (20 February and 20 October).

   
Abu Simbel, the Great Temple, chopping giant statues
Abu Simbel, the Great Temple, chopping giant statues
The Little Temple


    Located about 150 m north of the Great Temple. Its façade is decorated with six statues, four of them for Rameses II and the other for his wife, the great Queen Nefertari, united with the goddess Hathor.

    One crosses the entrance to a baptismal hall, whose columns adorn the front of the head of the goddess Hathor, the "good" and on the other side, scenes of the king, the queen and the various gods. The walls are full of scenes from the king's life, including scenes of his offerings with flowers, food and drinks. This hall is followed by a second hall with walls depicting the king and his wife in the presence of the gods. Finally, one arrives at the Holy of Holies in front of the statue of Lord Hathor.

Abu Simbel, the small temple
Abu Simbel, the small temple

Save the temples


    These two temples were threatened with immersion, like other similar temples in Nubia, when the High Dam was built. In 1955, he began to think of saving these temples and in 1958 he set up the "Nuba Rescue Project". In 1959, several solutions were proposed to protect the temples. In 1960, UNESCO appealed to all those interested in the world to participate in the rescue. In 1963, the Egyptian government, UNESCO and the concerned bodies adopted the method of cutting the two temples and transferring them to their current location on Mount Abu Simbel at a height of 65 meters above the previous level. The work began in the same year and was attended by nearly 50 countries and archaeological bodies with UNESCO and Egypt.

    After the engineering lifting, photographing, photocopying, and completion of all types of documentation, some 150,000 cubic meters of rock were removed from the two temples. The stones were then started to weigh 10-15 tons per piece and were then restored to their new location and installed again The work was completed in 1966, and high technical work began to re-form the mountain over the temples. Over the great temple, a unique concrete dome with a diameter of 59 m was made above the small temple. The dome was first half drawn and then covered with rocks, as was the case before. Methods of measuring heat and humidity Safety, disasters, lighting and other measures that have made the work top in precision, technology and deep respect for the as a treasure of humanity's treasures as well as their national value. In 1968, Abu Simbel became a first-class tourist center, including a power station, a water purification plant, hotels, clubs, official institutions, etc. The two worshipers now on the shore of Lake Nasser face the sun shining every morning.

Post a Comment

Powered by Blogger.