The ancient Egyptian civilization of the Nile Valley came of age under Old Kingdom rulers of dynasties 3 to 6. Their greatest legacies are the huge Giza Pyramids, the results of a spectacular program of pyramid building. The Pyramids of Giza epitomize ancient Egypt, but they were the results of a short period of pyramid building during the Old Kingdom.
The Giza Pyramids were built as tombs for the fourth dynasty kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure who ruled Egypt through 2589-2504 BCE. The largest is the Great Pyramid of Khufu, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. But the ancient Egyptians did not think of the pyramids just as resting places for the dead. They believed their rulers were divine god-kings who would ascend from the pyramid to take their place among the gods in the afterlife.
The Old Kingdom: AGE OF THE PYRAMIDS
Excavations in the city of Abydos, Tennys in the Greeks (the godmother buried in Sohag) revealed tombs for the kings of ancient Egypt, indicating that Abydos was the capital of a tribal face before the First Dynasty.
The location of Memphis in the north as the capital of the country, more important than Abydos, is strategically. The south is safer, because it is protected by Eastern Sahara and Western Sahara against foreign invasion. The North is exposed to the invasion of the Mediterranean or through the Sinai.
Abydos, the sacred place to bury the kings of the first family, remained. Because the god Osiris, buried by, as was believed by the ancient Egyptians. These graves, were simple built underground. The most famous of which is the tomb of King Djer, and King Dunn.
King "Den" is considered the best Pharaohs first family. His reign shows a great prosperity, and a lot of innovations. The first to wear the double crown, white and red, and the first to build his grave with stone, not brick. Unfortunately, all these graves were looted by thieves.
The archaeologist, Flinders Petrie, excavated the Abidus tombs in the 19th century. In order to fight the theft of antiquities, he paid the workers the value of what they discovered, gold at black market prices.
The workers discovered, in the tomb of King Djer, a camel's arm, wearing ancient royal jewels. Petri weighed the royal jewels, and replaced the finder with the value of pure gold. Later, an archaeologist in Cairo, kept the jewels, and removed the arm of the dead.