The fortress of Shama'a - the fort of the Crusaders on the shoulders of the Lebanese mountains
The fortress of Shama'a in southern Lebanon was built by the Crusaders as a military barracks for more than 800 years. Until today, it has been destroyed and restored, forgotten and remembered, but, despite the difficult fate, continues to rise above Tire.

The Shama'a fortress, which got its name from a religious shrine known as the temple of wax castle, which got its name from a religious shrine known as the temple of Simeon the Prophet, was built to serve as a defensive fortification of the Crusaders. However, later the fortress turned into a military headquarters.

The fortress belongs to the city of Shama'a in the region of Tire, which is in the mountainous region of Jabal Amel in the south of Lebanon. It stands at an altitude of 430 meters above sea level at a distance of 25 km south-east of Tire.

The Shama'a fortress was built from stone 1116 years ago on a mountain ridge so that it creates an excellent view of the city of Tire.

In his book, Hasan al-Amin writes that the fortress regained its former glory thanks to Sheikh Ali and Sheikh Haidar Bani Ahmad Ben Haydar Ben Faris, who were the grandchildren of Nur al-Din al-Ayyubi, who lived in the monastery of Ajlun in the east of Rumman.

At the end of the thirteenth century, the fortress passed into the hands of the Mamluks, who, in turn, neglected its military-strategic importance. This went on until the eighteenth century.

The Shama'a fortress, along with other fortresses scattered throughout southern Lebanon, including Beaufort and Tibnin, has always played an important military and political role throughout the entire time period, beginning with its erection in the twelfth century up to the present day.

In 1978, they captured the area to the south of the Litani River. The fortress fell into their hands and for 22 years served as a military center. During this time, this monument of history was inflicted great damage.

Once again, the Shama'a fortress suffered at the hands of the Israelis during air raids in June 2006. It was destroyed by 80%.

Note that in 2000, after the liberation of the fortress from the Israeli occupants, the government of Lebanon represented by the Ministry of Culture and the Department of Antiquities prepared to study projects to restore the monument to history. However, all their works were in vain, since in 2006 Israeli aircraft damaged the fortress severely: all the towers and a small church near the fortress were destroyed.

The Government of Italy played an important role in the restoration of the fortress after the Israeli troops inflicted damage. 700 thousand euro was transferred to the government of Lebanon for reconstruction work, which lasted eight years.

According to the report of the Department of Antiquities in southern Lebanon, the restoration of the fortress began with the collection and restoration of surviving elements, which, after a raid by Israeli aviation, were scattered on different sides. A lot of effort and money was spent on its restoration and restoration.

It should be noted that the Shama'a fortress is one of the most strategically important fortresses in the south of Lebanon. It goes to the city of Tire and the Mediterranean coast. The fortress is stretched along the ridge and has well-fortified walls, towers and halls. Mamluks in the thirteenth century rebuilt it after the crusaders, and then about it for a long time forgotten.

The fortress is divided into four main parts: a fortification, a temple, an oil mill and a residential part. The defensive fortification is located in the north-eastern part of the fortress. Previously, it was the headquarters for commanders. It consists of the upper floor, where the barracks are located, and the lower one, where warehouses, a dairy and other auxiliary premises are located.

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